Another pages about the genus Apis : Belgium
Atlas Hymenoptera - Apis of the world
author(s) : Pauly A.

Geographic zone: World.
Citation: Pauly A. 2015. The species of the genus Apis Linnaeus.
http://www.atlashymenoptera.net/page.asp?ID=238

This is an attempt to present the systematics and biogeography of the species and subspecies in the genus Apis, with a list of most recently published papers.

Apis Africa - Asia - European bees

Linné
 maps
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) spp.
Middle-sized species with multiple combs in cavities; dances on vertical surfaces of combs in the dark (Michener, 2000). Four species: Apis mellifera, A. cerana, A. koschevnikovi and A. nigrocincta. Apis nuluensis is recognized at species level by some authors.
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) cerana Fabricius 1793
The Asiatic honeybee.

In the wild, A. cerana prefer to nest in small spaces, such as hollowed out tree trunks. They are similar in size or somewhat smaller than Apis mellifera and have smaller comb cells as well. Their honey yield is smaller, because they form smaller colonies. Like the Western honey bee, they are sometimes domesticated and used in apiculture, mostly in wooden boxes with fixed frames.
photo
Apis cerana
auteur(s) : Pauly A
Hind wing venation
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) cerana cerana Fabricius 1793
Distribution: as far west as Afghanistan and south along the central deserts and mountain ranges, across most of central and southern China, along the eastern edge of Asia up to Korea and Ussuria, and south to Northern Vietnam (Engel, 1999).

Hind wing venation
photo
Apis_cerana_cerana_Chine_SeTchouen_TaTsienlou_DSC_3045.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) cerana heimifeng Engel 1999
Distribution: Central China, in relatively high elevation areas (northern Sichuan Province, southwestern Gansu Province, and estern Qinghai Province).
Diagnosis: Distinguishable from typical A. cerana cerana in China by the dark brown to black scutellum and T3-T4 (these are yellow in A. cerana cerana). In this respect it resembles the Tibetan Honey Bee, A. cerana skorikovi, from which it differs in larger body size (body lenght 12.5-13.7 mm; forewing lenght 8.8-9.3 mm).
Source: Engel, 1999.
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) cerana indica Fabricius 1798
Distribution: India.
photo
Apis_cerana_indica_AnamalaiHills_DSC_3047.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) cerana japonica Radoszkowski 1887
Distribution: Japan
photo
Apis_cerana_japonica_Japan_DSC_3054.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) cerana javana Enderlein 1906
Distribution: Java to Timor.
photo
Apis_cerana_javana_Java_DSC_3048.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_cerana_javana_Timor_DSC_3049.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) cerana johni Skorikov 1929
Distribution: Sumatra
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) cerana nuluensis Tingek 1996
Distribution: mountains of Sabah
Otis 1996.
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) cerana philippina Skorikov 1929
Philippines
photo
Apis_cerana_philippina_Mindanao_DSC_3053.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) cerana skorikovi Engel 1999
Apis cerana skorikovi Maa 1944, nomen nudum.
Apis cerana, Himalaya race, Ruttner 1988.
Apis cerana, Xizang race, Peng et al. 1989.
Apis cerana himalaya Smith 1991, nomen nudum.

Distribution: along the Himalayan uplift at elevations of 1900-4000 m.
photo
Apis_cerana_skorikovi_Nepal_Jannu_DSC_3046.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) koschevnikovi Enderlein 1906
The Sundaland Honey Bee

Apis mellifica indica var koschevnikovi Buttel-reepen 1906. Unavailable because used infrasubspecifically (I.C.Z.N. 1985: Arts 10c, 23j, and 50c).
Apis indica variety koschevnikovi Enderlein 1906. First available usage.
Apis (Sigmatapis) vechti Maa 1953
Apis (Sigmatapis) vechti linda Maa 1953
Apis mellifera adansoni koschevnikowi Goetze 1964. Unjustified emendation.

Distribution: Malay Peninsula, Borneo, Brunei, Java, Sabah, Sarawak, and Sumatra (Engel, 1999).

Diagnose. This species is sympatric to A. cerana. It can be separated by it's black colour, and the different endophallus and hind legs of the drone (see Tingek et al. 1988).
photo
Apis_koschevnikovi_W_AMNH_BEE00199797-1_I_HHG553.jpg
auteur(s) : Hadel H. GO
Thanks to the courtesy of Hadel H. GO (amnh.org)
copyright Hadel Go
 photo
Apis_koschevnikovi_W_AMNH_BEE00199797-2_I_HHG554.jpg
auteur(s) : Hadel H. GO
Thanks to the courtesy of Hadel H. GO (amnh.org)
copyright Hadel Go
 photo
Apis_koschevnikovi_W_AMNH_BEE00199797-3_I_HHG555.jpg
auteur(s) : Hadel H. GO
Thanks to the courtesy of Hadel H. GO (amnh.org)
copyright Hadel Go
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera Linnaeus 1758
Honey bee
photo
Apis mellifera
auteur(s) : Pauly A.
Hind wing venation
 photo
Apis_mellifera_ligustica_pelotes_DSC_4184.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_mellifera_queen_Belgium_DSC_4173.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_mellifera_Quen_Belgium_DSC_4174.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_mellifera_male_Belgium_DSC_4175.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_mellifera_Queen_Belgium_DSC_4180.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_mellifera_male_Belgium_DSC_4178.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_worker_DSC_4233.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_Queen_DSC_4237.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_male_DSC_4224.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_worker_DSC_4229.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_Queen_DSC_4239.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_male_DSC_4221.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_worker_DSC_4234.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_male_DSC_4214.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_mâle_DSC_7002.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_mâle_DSC_7001.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_Queen_DSC_6998.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_Queen_DSC_7000.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_ouvriere_DSC_7077.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_ouvriere_DSC_7076.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis mellifera
auteur(s) : Yolande Oulès-Williams
France, Lozère, St Chély, gorges du Tarn
nid sauvage, photo communiquée par Guy Verhoest
 photo
Apis mellifera
auteur(s) : Yolande Oulès-Williams
France, Lozère, St Chély, gorges du Tarn,
nid sauvage, photo communiquée par Guy Verhoest
 photo
Apis mellifera >>> galerie photos
auteur(s) : Yolande Oulès-Williams
France, Lozère, St Chély, Gorges du Tarn,
nid sauvage accroché dans une anfractuosité de la roche des Gorges à quelque trente mètres au-dessus du lit de la rivière, photo communiquée par Guy Verhoest
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera adami Ruttner 1975
Distribution: island of Crete.

The illustrated specimen is from Vrakhas-H. Georgios, 250 m, , 29.IV.1931 (RBINS, Brussels).

Following Harizanis & Bouga (2003), it seems that there are today no pure populations of Apis m. adami in Crete.
photo
Apis_mellifera_adami_Crete_DSC_4186.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera adansonii Latreille 1804
Distribution: Forests of Central and West Africa.
photo
Apis_mellifera_adansoni_Gabon_Bissobinam_DSC_3031.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_adansoni_Gabon_Ntoum_DSC_3030.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera anatoliaca Maa 1953
Distribution: Turkey
photo
Apis_mellifera_anatolica_Ankara_DSC_3118.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera artemisia Engel 1999
Apis mellifera mellifera natio tesquorum Skorikov 1929, unavailable (I.C.Z.N. 1985: Arts. 10c, 23j, 50c)
Apis mellifera acervorum Skorikov 1929. Preoccupied (nec Linnaeus 1758)

Distribution: central Russian Steppes.
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera capensis Eschscholtz 1822
Distribution: Cape region of South Africa.

Comment: This subspecies is biologically distinctive for its ability to undergo parthenogenetic reproduction when deprived of a queen (Jack 1916, Anderson 1963, Ruttner 1977).
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera carnica Pollmann 1879
Distribution: European race occuring south of the Alps, east into northern Italy, and west into Yugoslavia and Romania.
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera caucasia Pollmann 1889
Apis mellifida (sic!) variety caucasica Pollmann 1889.
Apis mellifera caucasica Gorbachev 1916. Unjustified emendation.

Distribution: Caucasus Mountains.
The "grey" Caucasian honey bee.
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera cecropia Kiesenwetter 1860
The Greek Honey Bee

Distribution: Occurs throughout most of Greece and surrounding Aegean islands.

Reference: Bouga & Hatjina (2005).
photo
Apis_mellifera_cecropia_MtOlympe_DSC_4187.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera cypria Pollmann 1879
The Cyprian Honey Bee

Distribution: island of Cyprus
photo
Apis_mellifera_cypria_Cyprus_DSC_4185.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera iberiensis Engel 1999
Apis mellifera intermissa iberica Goetze 1964. Infrasubspecific name proposed after 1960 and therefore unavailable (I.C.Z.N. 1985: Art. 1b); preoccupied (nec. Skorikov 1929).
Apis mellifera iberica Ruttner 1988: 236. Corrected authorship (first available usage); preoccupied (nec Skorikov 1929).

Distribution: natively occurs on the Iberian Peninsula in Europe.
Two ecotypes of A. mellifera iberiensis occur in Spain as shown by Santiago et al. (1986) as well as two mitochondrial types as demonstrated by Smith et al. (1991) and Smith and Glenn (1995). Neotype designated by Engel from Cordoba populations sampled by Smith and Glenn (1995: their colony 1-1).
photo
Apis_mellifera_iberiensis_Spain_Guadelupe_DSC_4188.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera intermissa Maa 1953
The Tellian Honey Bee

The name intermissa as used by Buttel-reepen (1906) is unavailable. It was first made available by Maa (1953).

Distribution. This race has a tight distribution along the northern coast of Africa as far west as Morocco, into Tunisia in the east, but bordered by the Atlas range in the south.
photo
Apis_mellifera_intermissa_Tunisie_DSC_3014.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera jemenitica Ruttner 1976
Reinstated name by Engel 1999, The Arabian or Nubian Honey Bee.

Apis mellifera nubica Ruttner 1976.
Apis mellifera yemenitica Ruttner 1988. Unnecessary emendation.
Apis mellifera sudanensis Ruttner 1988. Nomen nudum.

No type designed for this subspecies (Engel 1999). Ruttners original material in Oberursel.

Distribution. Sahelian countries, from Senegal to Arabia.

Geographical distribution: Al-Ghamdi et al. 2013.
photo
Apis_mellifera_jemenitica_Arabie_Djedda_DSC_3012.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_jemenitica_ElWayyaa_DSC_3020.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_jemenitica_Obock_DSC_3026.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_jemenitica_Senegal_Kayes_DSC_3033.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_jemenitica_Zarima_DSC_3025.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera lamarckii Cockerell 1906
The Egyptian Honey Bee.

Distribution: This honey bee race occurs in a narrow range along the Egyptian Nile Valley.

Remark: replacement name for Apis fasciata Latreille 1804, preoccupied (nec Linnaeus 1767, nec Scopoli 1770).
photo
Apis_mellifera_lamarckii_DSC_3017.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera ligustica Spinola 1806
The Italian Honey Bee

Distribution: occurs along the Italian Peninsula. it has been commercially trasnported throughout the world.
photo
Apis_mellifera_ligustica_Lugano_DSC_3011.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera litorea Smith 1961
Distribution: along the eastern coast of tropical Africa occuring from Kenya (perhaps even the southern-most portions of Somalia) south to Mozambique.

No type appear to have been designated for this species (Engel 1999).
photo
Apis_mellifera_litorea_Zanguebar_DSC_3121.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera macedonica Ruttner 1988
The Macedonian Honey Bee

Distribution: southern Romania, east to Yugoslavia, and south to northern Greece (Engel 1999).

No type has been designated fro this race (Engel 1999). Original material in Ruttner collection.
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera meda Skorikov 199
The Median Honey Bee

Distribution: Iran, Iracq, southeastern turkey and northern Syria.
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera mellifera Linnaeus
The Western or European Honey Bee

Distribution: originally ranged throughout central Europe north of the Alps, as far south as southern Sweden in the north, central russia in the east, and on the British Isles. In the Ukraine there is a transition over the steppe region to A. mellifera sossimai (Engel 1999).
photo
Apis_mellifera_mellifera_Belgium_DSC_4181.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_mellifera_Belgium_DSC_4183.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_mellifera_Belgium_DSC_4182.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera monticola Smith 1961
The East African Black Mountain Honey Bee

Distribution: Mountains from Kenya and Tanzania. Described from Kilimandjaro but no type appears to have been designated (Engel 1999).

Phenotypic plasticity: Gruber et al. 2013.
photo
Apis_mellifera_monticola_Kenya_Elgon_DSC_3027.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera remipes Gerstaecker 1862
The Yellow Armenian Honey Bee
= Apis mellifera armeniaca Skorikov, 1929

Name reinstated by Engel 1999.

Distribution: This race occurs in Armenia and may be the same as A. mellifera anatoliaca, in which case Gerstaecker's name has priority.
photo
Apis_mellifera_armeniaca_Armenia_Monastero-Gherard_DSC_3117.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera ruttneri Sheppard, Arias, Grech & Meixner 1997
Distribution: island of Malta in the Mediterranean Sea.
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera sahariensis Baldensperger 1932
The Saharan Honey Bee

Distribution: southern side of the Atlas range in North Africa.

No type designated (Engel 1999).

Possibly a synonym of A. m. lamarckii from Egypt.
photo
Apis_mellifera_sahariensis_Maroc_Zagora_DSC_3116.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera scutellata Lepeletier de Saint Fargeau 1836
The African Honey Bee.

Range from South Africa and northward along eastern half of the continent.

This species was originally described from "Caffraria" (in South Africa) and distinguished from Apis caffra (Lepeletier de saint Fargeau 1836) (= A. m. capensis) by its yellow scutellum.

Remark: tis is the race introduced into Brazil in the 1950's, it is known as the "Africanized Honey Bee" or "Killer Bee".

photo
Apis_mellifera_scutellata_Rwanda_Rubona_DSC_3032.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_scutellata_Zambèze_Chemba_DSC_3120.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera siciliana Grassi 1881
The Sicilian Honey Bee

Name reinstated by Engel 1999

Apis siciliana Grassi 1881
Apis mellifica variety siziliana Buttel-Reepen 1906. Unjustified emendation.
Apis sicula Montagano 1911.

Distribution: island of Sicily in the Mediterranean Sea.
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera simensis Meixner et al. 2011
Distribution: High plates of Ethiopia
photo
Apis_mellifera_simensis_Holeta_DSC_3023.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_simensis_Holeta_DSC_3024.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_mellifera_simensis_MtSimien_3575m_DSC_3018.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera sossimai Engel 1999
The Ukarinian Honey Bee

Apis cerifera Gerstaecker 1862. Preoccupied (nec scopoli 1770).

Distribution: Ukraine, Crimea excepted. Northern regions of the Caucasus Mountains.
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera syriaca Skorikov 1929
The Syrian Honey Bee or the Palestine Honey bee.

Apis mellifera syriaca as used by Buttel-Reepen (1906) is unavailable. Corrected authorship by Skorikov 1929 (Engel 1999).

Distribution: eastern shores of the Mediterranean Sea; north from syria to the Negev Desert in the south.
photo
Apis_mellifera_syriaca_Syrie_DSC_3013.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera taurica Alpatov 1935
The Crimean Honey Bee

Distribution: along the north-central shores of the Black Sea; in the Crimea.
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) mellifera unicolor Latreille 1804
The Malagasy Honey Bee.

Distribution: Madagascar.

Brooks & Michener, 1988.
photo
Apis_mellifera_unicolor_DSC_3016.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Apis) nigrocincta Smith 1861
The Sulawesian Honey Bee

Apis nigrocincta Smith 1861
Apis mellifica indica var picea Buttel-Reepen 1906
Apis (Sigmatapis) nigrocincta marginella Maa 1953

Literature: Hadisoesilo et al. 1995, Hadisoesilo and Otis 1996, 1998, Hadisoesilo 1997.

Distribution: endemic to Sulawezi.

Diagnose. The drone cells of A. nigrocincta are soft and lack pores, unlike those of A. cerana which are always herdened and have pores. Drones of A. cerana always took their mating flights about 2 hr earlier than do drones of A. nigrocincta, with little overlap in the distributions of flight times. The distributions of A. cerana and A. nigrocincta are largely allopatric, with narrow zone of overlap. In Central Sulawezi, the abrupt transition corresponds to the restriction of A. nigrocincta to forests and of A. cerana to disturbed agricultural areas. The male genitalia of both species are similar. (source: Hadisoesilo 1997).
photo
Apis_nigrocincta_1_I_HHG847.jpg
auteur(s) : Hadel H. GO
Thanks to the courtesy of Hadel H. GO (amnh.org)
copyright Hadel Go
 photo
Apis_nigrocincta_2_I_HHG848.jpg
auteur(s) : Hadel H. GO
Thanks to the courtesy of Hadel H. GO (amnh.org)
copyright Hadel Go
 photo
Apis_nigrocincta_3_I_HHG849.jpg
auteur(s) : Hadel H. GO
Thanks to the courtesy of Hadel H. GO (amnh.org)
copyright Hadel Go
Show only this taxa Apis (Megapis) spp
Large species with single exposed combs; dances on vertical curtains of bees or on comb.
Show only this taxa Apis (Megapis) dorsata binghami Cockerell 1906
Distribution: Sulawezi
photo
Apis_dorsata_binghami_Sud_Sulawezi_DSC_3041.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_dorsata_binghami_Sulawezi_DSC_4172.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Megapis) dorsata breviligula (Maa 1953)
Distribution: Philippines.
The species status is oft argued based on nest site characteristics as reported by Morse and Laigo (1969) and Starr et al. (1987)
Molecular phylogeny: see Lo et al. (2010)
photo
Apis_dorsata_breviligula_Philippines_Mindanao_DSC_3035.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Megapis) dorsata dorsata Fabricius 1793
Distribution: From India, east to the coast of Vietnam, and into the southeast Asian islands where it is sometimes replaced by other subspecies (Engel, 1999).

Nests are mainly built in exposed places far off the ground, on tree limbs and under cliff overhangs, and sometimes on buildings. Apis dorsata is a defensive bee and has never been domesticated (as it does not use enclosed cavities for nesting). Each colony consists of a single vertical comb (sometimes approaching a square metre) suspended from above, and the comb is typically covered by a dense mass of bees in several layers. When disturbed, the workers may exhibit a defensive behavior known as defense waving.
photo
Apis_dorsata_dorsata_India_AnamalaiHills_DSC_3036.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_dorsata_dorsata_Java_DSC_3038.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_dorsata_dorsata_Thailand_Songkhla_DSC_3037.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis dorsata
auteur(s) : Tomaz OSTIR
Cambodia
 photo
Apis dorsata
auteur(s) : Tomaz OSTIR
Cambodia
 photo
Apis dorsata
auteur(s) : Tomaz OSTIR
Cambodia
 photo
Apis dorsata
auteur(s) : Tomaz OSTIR
Cambodia
 photo
Apis dorsata
auteur(s) : Tomaz OSTIR
Cambodia
Show only this taxa Apis (Megapis) dorsata laboriosa Smith 1871
Distribution: At high altitudes (1200 to 4000 m) on the slopes of the mountains from northernmost India to the northernmost boundary of Laos (Engel, 1999).
Literature: Otis (1996), Lian-Fei Cao et al. (2012)
photo
Apis_dorsata_laboriosa_Khasia_Assam_DSC_3040.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_dorsata_laboriosa_Yunan_TseKou_DSC_3039.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Micrapis) spp.
Small species with single exposed combs; dances on expanded horizontal base of comb. Two species.
Show only this taxa Apis (Micrapis) andreniformis Smith 1858
Distribution: north to China (Yunnan), south into Malaysia, eastward on the mainland to the coast of Vietnam, and westward as far as north-western India along the eastern border of Nepal (Engel, 1999).

Biogeography: Hepburn & Radloff 2011.

The most reliable character to rapidly distinguish A. andreniformis from A. florea is the denser punctuation of the abdominal tergite 2.

The mistaken notion that abdominal tergites 1 and 2 of A. florea are reddish and
other segments at least partially reddish, while those of A. andreniformis are
uniformly black, still permeates the literature (Radloff, Hepburn & Engel in Hepburn & Radloff, 2011, Honeybees of Asia).
photo
Apis_andreniformis_Bouthan_DSC_3042.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_andreniformis_Thailande_DSC_3043.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_andreniformis_Yunnan_DSC_3155.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_andreniformis_Bhoutan_DSC_3152.jpg
auteur(s) :
Show only this taxa Apis (Micrapis) florea Fabricius 1787
Distribution. From the eastern region of the Arabian Peninsula, through southern Iran and Iraq to Pakistan and India as far north as the Himalayan uplift. The species extends eastward as far as Vietnam, north to Yunnan Province, China, and south into Indonesia (Engel, 1999).

Jordan (Haddad et al. 2009)
Invasive in Africa: first discovered in Sudan (Lord & Nagi, 1987), now also in northern Ethiopia (Pauly & Hora 2013).

Morphometry: Hepburn et al. 2005.
carto
Apis florea
Main sources : Pauly A
Last update :
carto
Apis florea
Main sources : Pauly A.
Last update :
photo
Apis_florea_Thailande_ThapSakae_DSC_3044.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_florea_Ethiopia_DSC4252.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_florea_Ethiopia_DSC4253.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_florea_Thailand_PhetChaburi_DSC_3150.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Apis_florea_Thailand_Phetchaburi_DSC_3151.jpg
auteur(s) :
 photo
Ais florea
auteur(s) : Zewdu A. Hora
Northern Ethiopia
 photo
Apis florea
auteur(s) : Zewdu A Hora
Northern Ethiopia

Références

  Al-Ghamdi A., Alsharhi M., Alatal Y. & Nuru A. 2012. Morphometric diversity of indigenous Honeybees, Apis mellifera (Linnaeus, 1758), in Saudi Arabia. . Zoology in the Middle East, 57: 97-103.
  Al-Ghamdi A., Nuru A., Khanbash M.S. & Smith D.R. 2013. Geographical distribution and population variation of Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner. . Journal of Apicultural Research, 52(3): 124-133. .
  Amssalu B., Nuru A., Radloff S.E. & Hepburn H.R. 2004. Multivariate morphometric analysis of honeybees (Apis mellifera) in the Ethiopian region. . Apidologie, 35: 71-81.
  Anderson R.H. 1963. The laying worker in the Cape honeybee, Apis mellifera capensis. Journal of Apicultural research, 2: 85-92.

Bouga M. & Hadjina F. 2005. Genetic variability in Greek Honey Bee (A. mellifera L.) populations using geometric morphometrics analysis. Proceedings of the Balkan scientific conference of Biology in Plovdiv (Bulgaria) from 19th till 21st of may 2005 (Eds B. Gruev, M. Nikolova & A. Donev), 2005 (p. 598-602).
  Engel M. 1999. The taxonomy of recent and fossil honey bees. Journal of Hymenoptera Research, 8: 165-196.
  Gruber K., Schöning C., Otte M., Kinuthia W. & Hasselmann M. 2013. Distinct subspecies or phenotypic plasticity? Genetic and morphological differentiation of mountain honey bees in East Africa. Ecology and Evolution, 1-15.
  Haddad N., Fuchs S., Hepburn H.R. & Radloff S.E. 2009. Apis florea in Jordan: source of the founder population. Apidologie, 40: 508-512.
  Hadisoesilo S. & Otis G.W. 1996. Drone flight times confirmthe species status of Apis nigrocincta Smith, 1861, to be a species distinct from Apis cerana F., 1793, in Sulwaezi, Indonesia. Apidologie, 27: 361-369.

Harizanis P. & Bouga M. 2003. Genetic structure of the Bee from Crete Island (Greece). XXVIIIth International Apicultural Congress, Final Programme and Book of Abstracts, Ljubljana, Slovenia, p. 696. .
  Hepburn H.R. & Radloff S.E. 1998. Honeybees of Africa. Springer. 370 pp.
  Hepburn H.R. & Radloff S.E. 2011. Biogeography of the dwarf honeybees, Apis andreniformis and Apis florea. Apidologie, 42: 293-300.
  Hepburn H.R. & Radloff S.E. 2011. Honeybees of Asia. Springer, 600pp.
  Hepburn H.R., Radloff S.E., Otis G.W., Fuchs S., Verma L.R., Ken T., Chaiyawong T., Tahmasebi G, Ebadi R. & Wongsiri S. 2005. Apis florea: morphometrics, classification and biogeography. Apidologie, 36: 359–376.
  Jack R.W. 1916. Parthenogenesis amongst the workers of the Cape honey-bee: Mr.G.W. Onion's experiments. Transactions of the Entomological Society of London, 1916: 396-403.
  Lian-Fei Cao, Huo-Qing Zheng, Xuan Chen, De-Fang Niu, Fu-Liang Hui & H R. Hepburn. 2012. Multivariate morphometric analyses of the giant honey bees, Apis dorsata F. and Apis laboriosa F. in China. Journal of Apicultural Research 51(3): 245-251.
  Lo N., Gloag R.S., Anderson D.L. & Oldroyd B.P. 2010. A molecular phylogeny of the genus Apis suggests that the Giant Honey Bee of the Philippines, A. breviligula Maa, and the Plains Honey Bee of southern India, A. indica Fabricius, are valid species. Systematic Entomology (2010), 35, 226–233.
  Lord W.G. & Nagi S.K. 1987. Apis florea discovered in Africa. Bee World, 68 (1): 39-40.
  Maa T.C. 1953. An inquiry into the systematics of the tribus Apidini or honeybees (Hym.). Treubia, 21: 525-640.
  Meixner M.D., Leta M.A., Koeniger N. & Fuchs S. 2011. The honey bees of Ethiopia represent a new subspecies of Apis mellifera – Apis mellifera simensis n. ssp. . Apidologie, 42: 425-437. .
  Ming-Xian Yang. 2009. Studies on Mixed–Species Colonies of Honeybees, Apis cerana and Apis mellifera. Thesis submitted in fulfilment of the requirements For the Degree of Doctor of Philosophy At Rhodes University. 132pp.
  Morse R.A. & Laigo F.M. 1969. Apis dorsata in the Philippines (including an annotated bibliography). Monograph of the Philippine Association of Entomologists, 1: 1-96.
  Oldroyd B.P., Chapman R.N.C., Thompson G.J. & Beekman M. 2006. Evidence for reproductive isolation between two colour morphs of cavity nesting honey bees (Apis) in south India. Insectes Sociaux, 53: 428-434.
  Otis G.W. . 1996. Distribution of recently recognized species of honey bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae; Apis). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society, supplement 69, 311-333.


Pauly A. & Hora Z.A. 2013. Apini and Meliponini from Ethiopia (Hymenoptera: Apoidea: Apidae: Apinae) . Belgian Journal of Entomology, 16: 1-36.
  Pinto M.A., Munoz I., Chavez-Galararza J., De la Rua P. 2012. The Atlantic side of the Iberian Peninsula: a hot-spot of novel African honey bee maternal diversity. Apidologie, 43: 663-673.
  Rinderer T.E., Koeniger N., Tingek S., Mardan M. & Koeniger G. 1989. A morphological comparison of the cavity dwelling honeybees of Borneo Apis koschevnikovi (Buttel-Reepen, 1906)* and Apis cerana (Fabricius, 1793). Apidologie, 20: 405-411.
  Ruttner F. 1977. The problem of the Cape bee (Apis mellifera capensis Escholtz): parthenogenesis, size of populations, evolution. Apidologie, 8: 281-294.
  Ruttner F. 1988. Biogeography and Taxonomy of Honeybees. Springer Verlag, Berlin, Germany, XXII + 284 pp.
  Starr C.K., Schmidt P.J. & Schmidt J.O. 1987. Nest-site preferences of the giant honey bee, Apis dorsata (Hymenoptera: Apidae), in Borneo. Pan Pacific Entomologist, 63: 37-42.
  Suwannapong G., Benbow M.E. & Nieh J.C. 2011. Biology of Thai Honeybees: natural history and threats . In: Bees: Biology, Threats and Colonies, Editor: Richard M. Florio, pp. 1-98.
  Tingek S., Mardan M., Rinderer T.E., Koeniger N. & Koeniger G. 1988. Rediscovery of Apis vechti (Maa, 1953): The Saban Honey Bee. Apidologie, 19 (1): 97-102.