Another pages about the genus Xylocopa : Africa - France
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author(s) : Terzo & Rasmont

Michael Terzo & Pierre Rasmont

Atlas of the European Bees: genus Xylocopa

This page is constructed in the framework of the STEP Project
"Status and Trends of European Pollinators"
Coordinator: Simon Geoffrey Potts, University of Reading

STEP Partners to Objective 1 (Document the status and trends of pollinators, map distributions):
University of Mons (Prof. Pierre Rasmont; Denis Michez; Stephanie Iserbyt; Yvan Barbier)
University of Reading (Stuart Roberts)

First on line 23.III.2011
Updated 1.III.2012, 10.XII.2014

Citation: Terzo M. & Rasmont P. 2014. Atlas of the European Bees: genus Xylocopa. STEP Project, Atlas Hymenoptera, Mons, Gembloux. http://www.zoologie.umh.ac.be/hymenoptera/page.asp?ID=214

Xylocopa European bees

Latreille, 1802
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Show only this taxa Xylocopa (Ancylocopa) parviceps Morawitz 1895
Distribution selon Warncke, 1982: Afghanistan: Koh-i-Baba Shah-tu-kotal/Hazaradjat
in 4000 m - Iran: Polur/Tehran (WARNCKE 1976) - Turkey: Konya, Sertavul/Taurus (WARNCKE 1976), Ercek/Van, SW.garkisla/Sivas, 5 km South Baskale in 2000 m/Van, Suvari Halil-Paß in 2500 m/Hakkari, 40 km nördl.Baskale in 2350 m/Van, Mt.Sat in 2050-2450 m/Hakkari, 10 km South Baskale in 1950 m/Van.
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Xylocopa parviceps (16 specimens)
Main sources : M. Terzo
Last update : 5.III.2012
Show only this taxa Xylocopa (Copoxyla) armeniaca Warncke 1982
Cette espèce ne se rencontre que dans les montagnes de l'est de la Turquie et d'Arménie, essentiellement dans les Hakkari Daglari. Elle n'est mentionnée que dans l'étage montagnard (1600 à 2500 m) et peut-être même alpin avec un paratype renseigné entre 2300 et 3000 m.
On constate un pic d'abondance des mâles au printemps alors que les femelles semblent être plus estivales.
M. Terzo
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Xylocopa armeniaca (47 specimens)
Main sources : Terzo & Rasmont, 1997
Last update : 5.III.2012
Show only this taxa Xylocopa (Copoxyla) iris (Christ 1791)
= Xylocopa alicae Cockerell, 1931
= Xylocopa canuta Rondani, 1874
= Xylocopa cupripennis SMITH, 1874
= Xylocopa cyanescens Brullé, 1832
= Xylocopa minuta Lepeletier, 1841
= Xylocopa taurica Erichson, 1841
= Xylocopa uclesiensis Pérez, 1901
= Xylocopa virescentis Strand, 1917
On la rencontre sur tout le pourtour méditerranéen avec une sous-espèce (uclesiensis) en péninsule ibérique et une autre (cupripennis) au Maghreb. Elle est absente des Baléares. Elle a par contre été citée de Sardaigne par TKALCU (1960). Elle trouve en France la limite ouest de sa distribution, sans toutefois y atteindre la côte atlantique. Elle y est fréquente dans le sud et très localisée vers le nord (TERZO & RASMONT, 1995). Ses stations les plus septentrionales sont renseignées par WESTRICH qui l'a observé dans le Kaiserstuhl (WESTRICH & DATHE, 1997) et en Alsace à Rouffach (47°58'N 7°18'E). La sous-espèce iris est séparée de la sous-espèce uclesiensis, présente en péninsule ibérique, par les Pyrénées. Elle contourne cependant cette chaîne de montagne le long de la côte méditerranéenne, dans le nord de la Catalogne. Elle est également bien représentée dans les Balkans (ATANASSOV, 1962). En dehors de la région ouest-paléarctique, on la cite en Iran et en Afghanistan (WARNCKE, 1976) ainsi qu'au Tadjikistan et en Ouzbekistan (MAA, 1954).
Mâles et femelles apparaissent entre le mois de mars et d'avril. Les mâles sont alors souvent plus nombreux que les femelles. Après le mois de mai, la population des mâles décline alors que celle des femelles s'accroît fortement jusqu'en juillet. En septembre, mâles et femelles deviennent très rares et disparaissent avant le mois de novembre.
M. Terzo
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Xylocopa iris (1108 specimens)
Main sources : Terzo & Rasmont, 1997
Last update : 5.III.2012
Show only this taxa Xylocopa (Copoxyla) rogenhoferi
Iran
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Xylocopa rogenhoferi (2 specimens)
Main sources : M. Terzo
Last update : 5.III.2012
Connu uniquement par l'holotype
Show only this taxa Xylocopa (Copoxyla) turanica
Asie centrale
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Xylocopa turanica (5 specimens)
Main sources : M. Terzo
Last update : 5.III.2012
Show only this taxa Xylocopa (Ctenoxylocopa) fenestrata (Fabricius 1798)
= Xylocopa lunata Klug 1807
= Xylocopa indica Klug 1807
= Xylocopa serripes Burmeister 1876
= Xylocopa gardineri Cameron 1902
= Xylocopa serripes Hedicke 1938
= Xylocopa hedickei Maa 1940
Widespread in western Oriental Region and penetrating into part of Palaearctic Region, very common in lowlands in India ; at present known from NE Arabia (Muscat), Iraq (Assur), Iran, W. Pakistan, Kashmir, India, Maldive Is., Ceylon, Andaman Is., E. Pakistan and Burma. The western- and northernmost limits of the known range are Iraq: Assur and Kashmir: Srinagar, respectively. F. Smith's (1874 : 268) record of this species from Celebes is obviously unreliable ; Burmeister's (1876 : 156) record, under the name serripes from Brazil : Rio de Janeiro is perhaps in need of verification to see if the species has become established permanently in that country ; Friese's (1909 : 231) record, from French Somaliland : Obock probably referable to tessellata (Coincidentally, Vachal 1899 : 94, 107 recorded tessellata, also from Obock, under the name taschenbergi) ; Alfken's (1935 : 174) record from Palestine probably referable to sulcatipes. Meanwhile, Alfken's (1926 : 318) record of taschenbergi from Iraq: Basra is probably referable to fenestrata instead.
Maa, 1970
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Xylocopa fenestrata (1 specimen)
Main sources : M. Terzo
Last update : 5.III.2012
Maa (1970): "This reccord of Alfken's (1935 : 174) from Palestine is probably referable to X. sulcatipes. Meanwhile, Alfken's (1926 : 318) record of taschenbergi from Iraq (Basra) is probably referable to fenestrata instead."
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Xylocopa_fenestrata_M.jpg
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Show only this taxa Xylocopa (Ctenoxylocopa) sulcatipes Maa 1970
Widespread in W. Asia, at present known from Arabia, Palestine
and Transcaspia. In SW Arabia : Aden, this species coexists and has long been in
confusion with ustulata, and F. Smith's (1874) and Friese's (1901, 1909) records of
"hottentotta" from Aden might well be a mixture of both species. The records under
the same name by Friese (1901, 1909) from Jericho, and by Maidl (1912) from Arabia
(in part), Dead Sea and Transcaspia are certainly referable to sulcatipes.
Maa, 1970
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Xylocopa sulcatipes (3 specimens)
Main sources : M. Terzo
Last update : 5.III.2012
Show only this taxa Xylocopa (Ctenoxylocopa) tessellata Maa, 1970
Probably confined to NE Africa, at present known from Sudan, Eritrea and French Somaliland. I have not seen any material from the last country but Friese's (1909 : 231) record of "fenestrata" from Obock and Vachal's (1899 : 94, 107) records of 2 males, 2 females of "taschenbergi" from Obock and 2 tftf, 7 QQ from Djibouti are very likely to be referable to tessellata. The single Q "Afrique, don de Reiche, existe au Museum de Paris" recorded by Vachal (1898 : 93) as taschenbergi is possibly referable to fenestrata (see discussions under ustulatd) and is perhaps a part of the original series of frontalis Reiche & Fairmaire from Abyssinia (Ethiopia).
Maa, 1970
Show only this taxa Xylocopa (Ctenoxylocopa) ustulata F. Smith 1854
= Xylocopa sudanica Cockerell 1933
LIBYA: 2 females (MSNG), Fezzan, Ubari. 1 q. (MSNG), Tripolitania, Tin Alcun, det. Guiglia as hottentotta.
EGYPT: 2 males (NHMW), det. Maidl as hottentotta. 4 females (NHMW), det. Kohl as
carinata, and then by Friese as hottentotta.
ERITREA: 1fem. (MSNG), Asmara. 2 males, 6 fem. (MSNG ex colln. Magretti), Ghinda,
Saati & Sahali. 1 Sf. (MSNG), Cheren, det. Vachal as hottentotta; 1 fem. (MSNG), Keren,
det. Magretti as hottentotta.
ARABIA: "Arabia": 1 fem. (MNHL), det. Enderlein as taschenbergi; 1 fem. (BMNH 1900.
36). Aden: 1 fem. (BMNH 93.145); 1 fem. (MNHL ex colln. F. Smith), det. Ritsema as
hottentotta!
Widespread from W. Africa to SW Arabia; definitely known from Upper Volta, Gambia, Mali, Nigeria, Libya, Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia (Abyssinia), Eritrea and Aden. In SW Arabia, its distribution overlaps that of sulcatipes; and in Sudan and Eritrea, that of tessellata. The earlier records of this species under the name "hottentotta" from Senegal (Vachal 1899: 93, 107; Maidl 1912: 256, 270), are probably correct although I am unable to verify this ; the record from Cape of Good Hope (Vachal, 1. c.) is certainly unreliable; and the records by Maidl (1. c.) from S. Arabia, Dead Sea and Transcaspia, as evidenced by re-examination of his original material and by his description of £ frontal carina ("ganz gerade"), were clearly referable to sulcatipes. Friese's (1909 : 231) and Alfken's (1935 : 174) records from Jericho were probably referable to sulcatipes, too.
Maa, 1970
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Xylocopa_ustulata_M.jpg
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Show only this taxa Xylocopa (Koptortosoma) pubescens Spinola, 1838
= Xylocopa aestuans auct. nec L. 1758

There has been a taxonomic confusion about this species and the closely related X. aestuans (L. 1758). It has been clarified by Lieftinck (1964). The taxon living in the Palaearctic region is indeed X. pubescens while the true X. aestuans only lives in the Oriental region (Indochina, Indonesia, Sunda Archipelago).

X. pubescens is the only species of the West-Palaearctic belonging to the subg. Koptortosoma. In this group, there is a strong sexual dimorphism. While the female of X. pubescens is black with bright yellow fur on thorax, the male is entirely covered with a short apprimed greenish pilosity.

Friese (1896) cited X. pubescens from Dalmatie (Croatia) but it has never been confirmed despite that the species is very conspicuous.
Xylocopa pubescens has recently been observed for the first time on Greece's mainland, in the surroundings of Athene. (Lavrion, 28.IX.2012, photographied by Mark Eising, www.markeisingbirding.nl).
Several more recent observations (A. Cetkovic com. pers.) confirmed the settlement of the species on the European continent.

Pierre Rasmont
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Xylocopa pubescens (186 specimens)
Main sources : M. Terzo & P. Rasmont
Last update : 12.XII.2014
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Xylocopa pubescens
auteur(s) : A. Pauly
Female
Show only this taxa Xylocopa (Proxylocopa) olivieri Lepeletier 1841
= Xylocopa binominata GRIBODO 1894
= Xylocopa fuscata SMITH 1854
= Xylocopa hellenica SPINOLA 1843
= Xylocopa lanata SMITH 1854
= Xylocopa lunata KLUG 1807
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Xylocopa olivieri (123 specimens)
Main sources : M. Terzo
Last update : 5.III.2012
Show only this taxa Xylocopa (Proxylocopa) rufa Friese 1901
Distribution selon Warncke (1982): Kaukasus (Eriwan), Süd-Turkestan ostwärts bis Chin.Turkestan und Pakistan. Im Iran vor ullem in Süden und Osten verbreitet, neuer Fundort: Tepe in 1600 m/25 kn östl .Teheran; außerdem Israel: 1 fem. Jericho.
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Xylocopa rufa (2 specimens)
Main sources : M. Terzo
Last update : 5.III.2012
Show only this taxa Xylocopa (Proxylocopa) versicolor Alfken 1930
"Die Art ist turkestanisch. ALFKEN (1930) führt ein Männchen von Eriwan/Kaukasus an (von MORAWITZ als X. olivieri bestimmt) und hält ea für X. versicolor."
Warncke, 1982
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Xylocopa versicolor (1 specimen)
Main sources : M. Terzo
Last update : 5.III.2012
"ALFKEN (1930) führt ein Männchen von Eriwan/Kaukasus an (von MORAWITZ als X. olivieri bestimmt) und hält ea für X. versicolor." Warncke (1982)
Show only this taxa Xylocopa (Rhysoxylocopa) amedaei Lepeletier 1841
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Xylocopa amedaei (73 specimens)
Main sources : M. Terzo
Last update : 5.III.2012
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Xylocopa_albifimbria_F2.jpg
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Show only this taxa Xylocopa (Rhysoxylocopa) cantabrita Lepeletier 1841
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Xylocopa cantabrita (184 specimens)
Main sources : M. Terzo
Last update : 5.III.2012
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Xylocopa cantabrita femelle sur Asphodellus
auteur(s) : P. Rasmont
Massif de la Sainte Baume (France, Var)
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Xylocopa cantabrita mâle sur Asphodellus
auteur(s) : P. Rasmont
Massid de la Sainte Baume (France, Var)
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Xylocopa_cantabrita_F3.jpg
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Xylocopa_cantabrita_M1.jpg
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Show only this taxa Xylocopa (Xylocopa) iranica Maa 1954
Selon moi, Xylocopa iranica pourrait n'être qu'un synonyme de Xylocopa varentzowi.
M. Terzo
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Xylocopa iranica (2 specimens)
Main sources : M. Terzo
Last update : 5.III.2012
Show only this taxa Xylocopa (Xylocopa) valga Gerstaecker 1872
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Xylocopa valga (803 specimens)
Main sources : M. Terzo
Last update : 5.III.2012
Show only this taxa Xylocopa (Xylocopa) varentzowi Morawitz 1895
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Xylocopa varentzowi (20 specimens)
Main sources : M. Terzo
Last update : 5.III.2012
Show only this taxa Xylocopa (Xylocopa) violacea (L. 1758)
This by far the most common carpenter bee in West-Europe. It is presently clearly expanding its distribution toward the north. Roberts & Peat (2011) observed the species in UK where it is now nesting.
While the species was extremely rare in Belgium twenty years ago, it is now quite common and several nests have been discovered.

Pierre Rasmont
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Xylocopa violacea (4187 specimens)
Main sources : M. Terzo
Last update : 5.III.2012
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Xylocopa violacea >>> galerie photos
auteur(s) : Didier Drugmand
Cotentin
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Xylocopa violacea, mâle
auteur(s) : Patrick Bausson

Références

  Hurd P.D. & Moure J.S. 1963. A classification of the large carpenter bees (Xylocopini) (Hymenoptera: Apoidea). University of California Publications in Entomology, 29: 1-365. .
 
Maa, T.C. 1970. A REVISION OF THE SUBGENUS CTENOXYLOCOPA (Hymenoptera: Anthophoridae). Pacific Insects 12 (4) : 723-752.
  Roberts SPM & Peat L. 2011. Xylocopa in Britain. BWARS.
see also:http://www.bwars.com/index.php?q=content/xylocopa-britain

Terzo M., Iserbyt S & Rasmont P. 2007. Révision des Xylocopinae (Hymenoptera : Apidae) de France et de Belgique. Annales de la Societe entomologique de France (n.s.), 43(4): 445-491.


Terzo, M. & P. Rasmont. 1997. Révision des Xylocopa Latreille du sous-genre Copoxyla Maa des pays circum-méditerranéens (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Bulletin de la Société entomologique de France, 102(4): 367-377.


Terzo, M. & P. Rasmont. 2003. Xylocopa cantabrita Lepeletier en France (Hymenoptera, Apoidea). Bulletin de la Société Entomologique de France, 108(5): 441-445.
 
Warncke, K. 1982. DIE HOLZBIENEN DES VORDEREN ORIENTS (HYM., APIDAE). Linzer Biologische Beitrage, 14 (1): 23-37.